An introduction to object-oriented programming (Book Reading)

23 Jul 2019

Notes are heavily based on reading Programming Smalltalk - Object-Oriented from the Beginning: An introduction to the principles of programming by Johannes Brauer

Software engineering

Programmers deal with processing information for the purpose of automating tasks and activities that were once performed by people. However, every part of a program down to the smallest details must be programmed by a person.

The computer performs a human task that needs to be automated according to a firmly prescribed pattern of behavior laid out in a series of ordered individual steps, which must be strictly adhered to. These patterns of behaviour are called algorithms.

Designing algorithm takes two main steps. The first is formulating a method that can solve a problem. The algorithm can be formulated without worrying about what programming language will be used to implement it. The second step is converting that method into a language that the computer can understand and execute.

THe human must determine the method by which a solution can be discovered. This can occur either by coming up upon the solution by analysing the problem, that is, by thinking about it, or else by finding an existing solution to the problem, either by researching it in a relevant text or by remembering that one had already solved the problem at an earlier date. At bottom, though, a human has to discover the method at least once.

Basics of object-oriented programming

The major characteristic of SmallTalk programs are that "Programs consist exclusively of messages that are sent to objects".

Objects themselves are things that have states and behaviours. States are characteristics that belong to the object, whilst behaviours are things that that object can do. Usually the behaviours involve manipulating the characteristics in some way (my assumption).

Objects can also be more abstract in nature, they can be things like emotions, events, amounts, contracts etc.

Object-oriented program allows us to create (to some extent) a replica of the real world with objects that mimic the objects that would carry out the tasks their person counter parts would if the job was not to be automated. This virtual replica of the real world is called a model within the object-oriented paradigm, and the process of creating it is called modelling, or model construction.

An important distinction between objects in our model and the real world is that the objects in our model world will contain far less characteristics. The characteristics and behavior of a real world object is too complex to be captured in a model, and also uneccessary.

Consequently, an important part of Object-oriented programming is abstraction.

Dictionary definition: Abstraction is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.

Could be an idea to look at the objects around me and reduce it down to what I think are the essential characteristics and behaviours associated with them.

Input from colleague: Abstraction doesn't just mean simplifying something, but also means encapsulating data and coming up with metaphors that make the story of how the objects interact with each other easier to explain.

In object-oriented programming, a program is viewed as an ordered series of messages directed toward a goal, which are sent to appropriate objects.

In an object-oriented program, objects exchange messages. When an object recieves a message, it can react by providing information about its status, or by changing its status. The important thing here is that it'gives' its status or it changes its own status. Other objects can not interfere with the inner workings of other objects (at least they are not supposed to).

This means that the status of an objects (the state of its characteristics) are not visible from the outside. They can only be seen by sending messages that ask (and are permitted) to see them, or ask (and are permitted) for them to be changed. This is an important characteristic in Object-oriented design, known as 'information hiding'.

Another important note, you can send messages to objects, but they have to be able to understand them. You can't send a message to an object that it doesn't understand. e.g you can't ask a fraction to add another fraction to itself if it doesn't know how to add.

In object-oriented programming, messages are methods that objects can execute. Executing a method is sending a message.

The methods that an object has form the externally visible surface (interface) of the object. Methods are only executed as a reaction to messages they have recieved. Messages are methods executed by other objects, also as a reaction to messages that they have recieved.

When an object sends a message to another object who responds, the sender recieves an object as a result.